Covid-19

By Nick Routley

Infection

The virus, officially named SARS-CoV-2, enters the body – generally through the mouth or nose. From there, the virus makes its way down into the air sacs inside your lungs, known as alveoli.

Once in the alveoli, the virus uses its distinctive spike proteins to “hijack” cells. The primary genetic programming of any virus is to make copies of itself, and COVID-19 is no exception. Once the virus’ RNA has entered a cell, new copies are made and the cell is killed in the process, releasing new viruses to infect neighboring cells in the alveolus.

This process can occur initially without a person being aware of the infection, which is one of the reasons COVID-19 has been able to spread so effectively.

Immune Response

The process of hijacking cells to reproduce causes inflammation in the lungs, which triggers an immune response. As this process unfolds, fluid begins to accumulate in the alveoli, causing a dry cough and making breathing difficult.

For 80-85% of people infected by COVID-19, these symptoms will run their course much as they would with a case of the flu.

Severe Symptoms

In 15-20% cases, the immune system’s response to inflammation in the lungs can cause what’s known as a “cytokine storm”. This runaway response can cause more damage to the body’s own cells than to the virus it’s trying to defeat, and is thought to be the main reason for why the conditions of young, otherwise healthy individuals can rapidly deteriorate.

If enough alveoli collapse, a patient to be placed on a ventilator for breathing assistance. Both acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) are being investigated as causes.

severe case of covid-19

At this stage, the surfactant that helps keep alveoli from collapsing has been diluted, and fluid containing cellular debris is impairing the gas exchange process that supplies oxygen to our bloodstream.

In the most severe cases, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurs as the protein-rich fluid from the lungs enters the bloodstream, resulting in septic shock and multi-organ failure. This is often the cause of death for people who have succumbed to a COVID-19 infection.

The Best Protection

Thankfully, COVID-19 isn’t a death sentence for most people who become infected, but the symptoms described above are not pleasant. Until a vaccine is fully developed, the best defense is avoiding infection altogether through frequent, thorough hand washing, and physical distancing as recommended by health authorities.

Visualizing What COVID-19 Does to Your Body

Covid-19 and Commercial – Recreational Diving

The risks that contracting Covid 19 can provoke in commercial and recreational divers are varied, due to the consequences that this can produce in the short and long term. It is an added risk to the same activity, which is considered high risk, mainly in commercial diving.

Prevention of infection and early detection through strict protocols is very important. As well as the correct disinfection of all the equipment and shared spaces in the diving operations.

We find it very important to leave the guidelines established by the Association of Diving Contractors International ADCI and general information provided by the Divers Alert Network.

ADCI COVID-19 Guidance for Surface Diving Operations

COVID-19 Information from Divers Alert Network